CIL 1.593.56-67 = ILS 6085

On those roads that are or shall be within the city of Rome places where habitation shall be continuous, no one, after the first day of January shall be permitted in the daytime-after sunrise or before the of the day-to lead or drive any freight wagon except when it is bring in or transport material for the sake of building the sacred immortal gods, or for the sake of building Public Works, or where, in out a public contract for demolition, it shall be necessary for the good public to carry material out of the city and out of those places, and in for which specified persons shall be allowed for specified causes to drive or freight wagons by this law.

On those days when the Vestal Virgins, the Rex sacrorum, and the flamenei shall be required to ride in wagons in the city for the sake of the public sacrifice of the Roman people, and when wagons shall be necessary for the sake of a triumph on the day someone will have the triumph, or where wagons shall be required for games publicly celebrated at Rome or within one mile of the city of Rome, or for the procession at the circus games ...for the sake of those causes and on those days nothing in this law is intended to prevent wagons from being led or driven in the daytime in the city.

Nothing in this law is intended to prevent wagons that will have been brought into the city at night, if returning empty or carrying away refuse, from being drawn by oxen or draught animals in the city of Rome or within one mile of the city of Rome after the sun has risen in the first ten hours of the day ....





The city of Rome developed very haphazardly since its foundation in 753 BCE. There was very little central urban planning, and as a result many traffic and congestion problems arose. By the first century BCE the city of Rome was estimated to have been the home to almost one million inhabitants. With this great number of people in a very congested city, traffic was surely to be a problem. Not only was there an abundance of people in the streets, wagons and animals were also being dragged through the crowd. The “urban road system was incapable of handling the traffic—both vehicular and pedestrian” (Ancient Technology 172), and something had to be done.

The above legislation was passed in 44 BCE, promulgated by the Dictator Julius Caesar. Its intention was to ameliorate many of the traffic and safety concerns of the city, by restricting access for wheeled vehicles to the hours of darkness. Before the law, “you [would] see more wagons in front of city homes than you would see in the country if you went to visit a farm” (Shelton 127). By not having wagons in the streets of Rome, pedestrians should have been able to move about more freely. In addition to limiting congestion, the legislation also increased the safety for pedestrians because they no longer had to worry about the danger of being injured by a wheeled vehicle. One Roman citizen discusses the dangers of wandering the streets:
One man hits me with his elbow, another with a hard pole; one man strikes me on the head with a wood beam, another with a wine jar. My legs are covered with thick mud. Then, on all sides, big feet step on me, and a nail from a soldier’s boot pierces my toe… they are piled high and they sway, posing for the crowd a threat of danger. For if a wagon carrying marble should tip over and dump its load of mountain rock on top of the throng of people, what would remain of the bodies? Who would find the limbs or the bones? The crushed would utterly disappear. (Shelton 68)

The Roman economy was reliant on effective transportation of goods into the city. Because of this, wagons could not be prohibited at all times. During evening hours, when pedestrian traffic decreased, wagons were to be allowed inside the city. Many Romans complained about the noise of the wagons at night, but it might be better than the danger posed during the day. The law made sure to point out that this law was not attempting to prevent wagons or other wheeled vehicles from entering the city for public works projects, including the building of temples, or during religious or triumph celebrations. The law was to apply to private residents, and not workers of the state that were aiding the public interest. This law shows the determination of the Roman government and society to make reasonable laws aimed at protecting citizens and ameliorating problems, while not overly hurting business or the economy. The government also did not wish to create unreasonable laws, or laws that could be interpreted any way other than the first intention. The legislation is clear on whom this regulation applies to, and why it was enacted.


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Labor and Economic Regulations
I believe this document is a good example of how the Roman government placed an emphasis on economic growth, while my document is an example of how the government placed a priority on safety for citizens, while slightly hurting the economy and private business.
Rowdy soldiers
This document is an example of the dangers associated with the Roman Empire. Not only did residents have to worry about the empire's enemies, they also had to be concerned with forces from inside. Both the soldiers and wagons inside cities were sources of harm, and became part of the every day worries of residents.
Oppressed workers
This document is another example of Roman economic law, and how the empire balanced business and individual rights. The document deals with oppressed workers who want more protection from the law. My document deals with the government preventing residents from business wagons, even though it could hurt the economy.



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