A majority of what I highlighted in red in the document and focused on in researching was how citizenship had an influence, as well as the actual ban, as its history indicated a lot regarding the soldiers' lifestyles and the state's perception of the army in conjunction with the hyperlinks I provided. Specifically, I highlighted in red any general legal association, any citizenship mention, or legitimization reference. The amount and dispersed amount of red indicates the effect these themes had throughout the document.

257 Mitteis and Wilcken 1912: 11.2 no. 372, and FIRA 3. 19, papyrus, Egypt, AD 114-42 (extracts)(This papyrus contains a collection of decisions made by prefects of Egypt in respect of soldiers' families.)
(i) Year 20 of the divine Trajan 10 Tybi (5 January 117). When Lucia Macrina had made a statement through her advocate, Phanius, that she was seeking a monetary deposit from the estate of the soldier Antonius Germanus, now deceased, Lupus (Marcus Rutilius Rufus, prefect of Egypt, 113-17) said: 'We know that deposits of this kind are dowries. For cases like this I do not grant a judge. For a soldier is not permitted to marry. If you claim a dowry and I grant a judge, it will seem that I have been persuaded that the marriage is legal.'
(ii) Year 18 of Trajan, 27 Phaophi (24 October, 114)
Longinus Hy[ _ ] declared that he, a Roman citizen, had served in the first ,cohort. of Thebans under Severus, and had while in military service lived with a Roman woman by whom he had begotten Longinus Apolhnanus and Longinus Pomponius, and he asked that these be certified (as Roman citizens), Lupus, having talked with his legal advisers, stated: 'The boys will be [certified] since they have been born of a Roman woman.You also wish to establish them as [legitimate (?)], but I cannot make you their legal father.'
(iii) Year 18 of Trajan, 10 Payni (4 June 115).
Chrotis made a statement through her advocate Philoxenus that she, a citizen of Alexandria, had married Isidorus, also a citizen of Alexandria, and that afterwards when he was serving in a cohort, bore him a son, Theodorus, in whose name she now petitioned, arguing that, (although she had omitted to make a declaration of his birth}, it was nevertheless clear that he was the son of that man (Isidorus), from the will which he made, in which he left the child as heir of all his property. When the will of Julius Martialis (the Roman name given to Isidorus when he joined up), soldier of the first cohort of Thebans, was read out, Lupus consulted with his legal advisers and declared: 'Martialis could not have a legitimate son while he was serving in the army, but he made him his heir legally'.
(iv) Year 5 of our lord Antoninus (142), third extra day. When Octavius Valens and Cassia Secunda, whose case had been adjourned from yesterday, came into court, Eudaemon (Valerius Eudaemon, prefect of Egypt, 142-3), having consulted with his legal advisers, declared: • Yesterday, when the memorandum of that splendid man, Heliodorus, was read out, there was a clear reason for an adjournment, namely. in order that judgment should be reached in the case of those who are forbidden (i.e. to marry), in the presence of the mother of this boy. Today, having considered the relevant circumstances, I confirm the opinion I gave yesterday. Whether this man served in a legion, a cohort, or an ala, the child born to him could not be his legitimate son; moreover, since he is not the legitimate son of his father: who is an Alexandrian citizen, he cannot be an Alexandrian citizen. Therefore this boy, who was born to Valens while he was serving in a cohort, is his illegitimate son and cannot be admitted to Alexandrian citizenship'. And he added: 'You said yesterday that you had other sons; what ages are they, when were they born?'
What is the woman's status in society based on these encounters?
Octavius Valens replied: 'One recently, the other is older'.
Eudaemon said: 'Where were you serving when the older boy was born?'
Valens replied: 'In the cohort and the little one too'.
Eudaemon said: 'You must know that they are in the same situation as this one. There are some things which cannot be change?.'
Valens said: 'Now, if I manage to go abroad you yourself could sign my petition, so that I may obtain my rights through a legal representative.What wrong have the children committed?'
Eudaemon said: I have been foolish in explaining in detail what I could have said in a few words; what you are attempting is impossible, and neither this boy nor your other sons are citizens of Alexandria'.
Trans:
Campbell, Brian. The Roman Army: A Sourcebook (Routledge 1994).


What is the Document Describing?
There are multiple parts and scenes describing judiciary interactions regarding soldiers, their families and their offspring. Specifically, most surround marriage legitimation and the citizenship of the resulting children, in a time where legionaries in the Roman Army were not allowed to officially be married. The premise of the ban by Augustus had many results on long-term relationships within Alexandria, and other types of "marriages" seemed to form, and families were determined by level of input by the father. Furthermore, these documents describe complications that arise from the lack of a legal support system regarding family structure in the army.

What can we Learn?
The history of the marriage ban and its inclusion of citizenship indicated a lot regarding the soldiers' lifestyles and the state's perception of the army. What is also evident through the text is that while there was a marriage ban, it did not stop the soldiers from starting families. As Augustus is known for promoting propagating the creation of babies in the empire, it is particularly interesting that he is the one that shaped the army completely in this manner. The different links support some of the issues that arise in the document, including mothers fighting for citizenship for their children and how Roman legionaries marrying "non-Romans" affect the children, their lack of civil rights (and the subsequent fight to get them). Also emphasized is the legal system that extends to Egypt - we learned of the emperor's direct influence on this particular economic province, but the document reveals a section of the legal system, the presence of legal representatives, and how judiciary scenes might be carried out.

Any modern influences? It is interesting to compare the working of our American army and its set up in comparison to how Augustus reorganized it and had the state over the individual lifestyles in mind. Furthermore, I am always reminded of the legendary Sacred Band of Thebes which had men fight alongside their lovers in order to encourage better fighting not to let the other get killed. Focusing on the families of the army raises the issue of how it is easy to compartmentalize the army as simply a machine or fighting force when they had personal lives too that extended to families at home and abroad.

Looking at other students' wikis, it was interesting to compare how the emperor's treated the individual in the army and how that changed over time and in different provinces. In light of Tuesday's lecture on the trouble of continuously increasing the soldiers' pay, it was clear that the support and general happiness of the soldiers played an integral role in the well-being of the empire.

Original Questions:
General Questions that Arise from the Readings: (Specific ones are scattered above during the reading as well)
1: These all come from a sourcebook from the Roman Army. How were these collected?

2. Pillaging would generally be common - what number of Egyptian women would use this to have their future children be argued of Roman heritage?

3. Many of these documents were legal. How would these rulings change depending on the status (rank) of the soldier or whether he was living or dead? Also, how were public were these documents?

4. What social status did being a military man/family have in Egypt that differed from Rome? What was the relationship between the two countries at that point and how did it affect the families?

5. How did the administrative structure of Egypt (i.e. Alexandria) function in comparison and parallel to Rome?

Great Questions: I'd recommend looking at Sara Phang's books on soldiers and marriage and also some of the sources on Roman and Egyptian law. --AKS

Scattered throughout the Reading, other Questions:

1. The concept of Roman citizenship again is being raised - the paper is from Egypt, what social status does Roman citizenship have here, and it seems to be based directly on lineage, what happens when it is questioned?

2. How did a woman go about asserting (cross-culturally!) that a son was of a different parentage. What effect would this have on the family/child (in terms of benefits, rights in Rome, or social stigma?)

Lingering Questions:
1: Many of the sources come from Egypt, do we have sources that parallel these in other provinces? It's a double-edged sword with having so many of the documents be from papyrus, focused in only one location.

2. I specifically want to look into the status distinctions within Alexandrian citizenship - how would these judiciary situations turn out differently if the woman/child were of a different ethnic background?

3. What was the reaction to the repeal of the ban of marriage?

Links to fellow Wikis:
1. The Illegitimate Heirs wiki targets one of the key parts of my wiki, that is, the illegitimacy of the heirs of unions under the marriage ban. There isn't much information there, but the document itself looks into what rights a child should expect to receive from their father. What this document expands upon is exactly what might be withheld from the children of unmarried parents in the domestic situations in my document.

2. The Marriage Contract wiki really delves into the relationship that emerges from a marriage and the legal and social responsibilities of both parties. It would be an interesting comparison as with the marriage ban, there is minimal legal contract but more of a social acceptance. What would both parties typically look for?

3. The Veteran Right's wiki looks into what types of rights and responsibilities soldiers would demand and look for under an emperor. It would be a parallel to my document as what each army member would want to receive, and how those have changed under each emperor. It also indicates what level of respect socially being a part of the army would be to the empire.

4. Lastly, the Pregnancy dispute wiki highlights male and female conflict in rights after a post divorce pregnancy. The legal issues highlighted in my document are expanded upon in this work. It also specifically highlights what each gender feels their role is in and out of a marriage, what might be seconded in my own document.

Comments:
This is a really cool document, and your links are very informative. My main comment is structural. I liked the idea of highlighting important parts of the text, but I'm not sure I followed your thoughts on some of it, such as the highlighted people's names. Also, the red and the single question imbedded in the text were a bit jarring to my reading of the document. But that's purely superficial. As a final note, I find your point in your women's status in society link very intriguing, that women's technical legal status did not change when they married (unless they married in manus, which was infrequent by this time). Because they and their property were ultimately under the control of their pater familias regardless of whether they were married or not, women didn't have much to lose by not having legal marriages with soldiers. It was really any children produced by this union that had problems. -Leander Love-Anderegg

I agree that the red text is jarring. I think it would be better to have the text in black be bolded. I would discuss why Augustus thought the marriage ban was necessary, and what his motives were. Is it also possible to discuss when this marriage ban was removed and why? Did the above restrictions on families prevent soldiers from joining the army? I like your links to the outside pages, and think they expand the reader's knowledge so that one can read the document easier.--Dylan Plofker


I really like your analysis and external links; all in all you have really ripped this document apart and analyzed it to the fullest. I actually disagree with the previous two comments: I didn't mind the red. However, I think that it would be helpful to the reader if, at the top of the document, you make a sort of legend that explains, "words highlighted in red are ...". I say this because the first time I read through the document, I didn't know what the red sentences meant until you told me in your analysis. I think the reader would be less surprised by the red if you explained, at the beginning, what red sentences meant. Other than that, great analysis :) -Ellie Oates


I have a few questions after reading this - namely why did Augustus institute this marriage ban? What could have made implement this when he, as you pointed out, promoted procreation of Romans. Another question arises as to when did this marriage ban end, or did it? Because my document talk about the granting for Roman citizenship to veterans of the 10th legion and their children born during service and to their wives so clearly either this rule was forgotten or removed. Perhaps another question would be how was this ban perceived by the military?
- John Marley


Changes that I ultimately made:
After our lecture on religion, I was very interested in how perhaps the Mithraic cult and mysteries might be tied to the army, as it was entirely male-based and highly associated with soldiers. Sara Phang did not have very much on the subject, and preliminary research did not reveal much besides the all-male membership and several levels of possible initiation, in a manner very similar to fraternities. I found that the link I thought of, while probably preliminary, did open up another view that some types of religions or cults may have filled the void of a marriage for some soldiers.

I also took another look at how ethnic differences played a role in the empire and how they would affect the legal rights of children born in these 'unions'. Most of the chief sources regarding the entire marriage prohibition are the extensive papyri from Roman Egypt, similar in form to my document, but it is indicative that this was present in multiple areas, as it was referring to general situations as opposed to only Egyptian or Alexandrian. Furthermore, I found some more information on how women specifically were effected by later marriage after soldiers left the army.

In response to other students' comments, I ultimately put a header on the top of the document looking for the red sections of my document which I highlighted and cut down to be more succinct. Lastly, I wish I could have found more on the soldiers' reaction to the marriage ban. Phang does not discuss much beyond the actual physical repeal by Septimus Severus when he gave the soldiers permission "to live with their wives", interpreted as legal marriage. The source by Herodian actually puts it in a very negative light, in that Severus "corrupted the discipline of the soldiers by granting them various privileges". It extends from my interest in how the lives of soldiers dictated a lot of the empire's welfare, especially in the time of emperors.

Works Cited:

Bowman, Alan K. and Dominic Rathbone. "Cities and Administration in Roman Egypt". The Journal of Roman Studies 82 (1992): 107-127. Database on-line. JSTOR; accessed 5/9/11.

Delia, Diana. "Alexandrian Citizenship during the Roman Principate". Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991.

Lewis, Naphthali. "The Prefects of Egypt in AD 199". The Journal of American Philology 76 (1955): 63-69. Johns Hopkins University Press. Database on-line. JSTOR; accessed 5/13/11.

Phang, Sara Elise. "The Marriage of Roman Soldiers (13 BC - AD 235): law and family in the imperial army". Leideri; Boston; Koln: Brill, 2001.

Phang, Sara Elise. "Roman Military Service: ideologies of discipline in the late Republic and early Principate". Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Riggsby, Andrew. "Roman Law and the Legal World of the Romans". Cambridge University Press. 2010.

Sherwin-White, A.N. "The Roman Citizenship". Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

Watson, Alan. "The Spirit of Roman Law". The University of Georgia Press: Athens & London, 1995.