Source Document:
42 Speidel 1970, inscription, Philippi, Macedonia, 106 CE
Tiberius Claudius Maximus, veteran, undertook the construction of this monument while he was still alive. He served as a cavalryman in Legion VII Claudia Loyal and Faithful, was appointed treasurer of the cavalry, guard of the commander of the same legion, standard-bearer of the cavalry, and in the Dacian war was awarded military decorations for bravery by Emperor Domitian. He was promoted to 'double pay' soldier (duplicarius) in the second ala of Pannonians by the divine Trajan, by whom he was also appointed to the position of scout in the Dacian war, and twice awarded military decorations for bravery in the Dacian and Parthian wars, and was promoted decurion in the same cavalry ala by the same emperor because he had captured Decebalus and brought his head back to him at Ranisstorum. After voluntarily serving beyond his time, he was honourably discharged by Terentius Scaurianus, commander with consular rank of the army in the new (?) province of [Mesopotamia ( __ ]

Campbell, Brian. The Roman Army: A Sourcebook (Routledge 1994).

Original Questions
-What were the duties of the treasurer of the cavalry, guard of the commander, and standard-bearer of the cavalry?
-How does a soldier receive a promotion of double pay, and how often did this occur?
-What is an ala?
-Who was Decebalus and how was he defeated?
-How often do soldiers volunteer to serve beyond their time? What are the incentives/benefits of doing so?

All good questions; I suggest looking for books and articles about the Roman army during this period. (Sara Phang is a good source.)

Peer Comments:
It might be helpful to add subsidiary pages for the Dacian and Parthian Wars. Brief summaries of these wars would help the reader get an understanding for the conflicts that Tiberius Claudius Maximus was involved in. I really like your research into Tiberius' life in the analysis section. - Mark Wieland

I agree with Mark that there should be links describing the Davian and Parthian Wars, but there should also be links to individuals and other terms in the text. Domitian and Trajan are worthy of a link, as well as "double pay" (duplicarius), Legion VII, and other individuals or places. Also, how common are these memorials throughout the Roman empire? --Dylan Plofker

I agree with Mark in that you should include links to pages that would give us more background on the wars. I liked your description of Tiberius's rank, role, and honor within the army, but I would like to see how he was perceived by the Roman public (if it is possible to find documents). My interest is how the average Roman person would value a leader like Tiberius. I think finding maybe one source pertaining to Tiberius's fame would be a great way to provide more depth in your document analysis.
-Daniel Espinel

I agree with the statements above for the most part. I learned much from your explaining of this source - where, when, who and what. It gave great insight as to the military awards and ranks of the Roman legion. However I would ask for more explaining, analysis as to what it means and what we can draw from it rather than simply explaining who Tiberius and the Legio VII was. What does this mean for how soldiers behaved in battle? How was morale affected? What does this mean for understanding of the Roman Army system? Some more questions and research along those lines would be very insightful for comprehension of this document.
- John Marley

I agree with John that while you ably explain some of the main features of the Roman army in this period, you might have attempted to draw some broader conclusions about social life, employment and ideology in this period from Maximus' experience (or the representation of that experience). Having said that, you show that you are alive to these broader implications in the links you close with. Thanks. - James Kierstead

Kronion's Will (Mark Wieland)

Most of what we know today about Trajan's two Dacian Wars comes from Trajan's Column. Completed in 113CE, it commemorated Trajan's victory and accounts many details of the wars. The capture of King Decebalus is depicted here, which likely shows Tiberius as one of the horsemen in the scene.

Shortly after the Dacian Wars, Trajan set his sights elsewhere and annexed the province of Armenia in the Parthian War.


This scripture tells of the construction of a monument for the war-hero Tiberius Claudius Maximus, a veteran who served in the 7th Claudia Legion - likely consisting of some 5120 men. The 7th Claudia Legion first gained its title of "Loyal and Faithful" in 42 CE, after helping to stop the Scribonianus revolt against Emperor Claudius. By the first century BCE, its recruits all came from Asia Minor. The legion received honors during the Pannonian War in 6-9 CE, and in Trajan's Dacian Wars in 101-106 CE. It was common for a Roman soldier to serve in the same legion that his father had served in, making it likely that Tiberius had a family history of serving in the 7th Claudia Legion. He may have gained the high role of legionary cavalryman through family ties. Serving a role greater than a standard infantryman, this would see him performing specialized tasks and seeking enemy intelligence.

Tiberius served as a cavalryman in one of the two alae (wing) that fight alongside the army - consisting of 512 men on horseback. Cavalrymen were paid more than legionaries on foot, and as of 89 CE would receive 1,200 sesterces a year. A soldier who demonstrated bravery in battle would earn double pay receive the title duplicarius. This was a great honor, as these soldiers were represented separately from the rest of their rank and file during strength reports of legions. The commanding officer would call forth the soldier in question in front of the entire legion, praise him publicly, then award him with double pay and war decorations to the cheering of his peers. It's likely that at the least, Tiberius earned the torque and amulae - the award for valor in battle. He may have also had a golden necklace and wrist bracelets, which were frequently won by centurions and cavalrymen.

A standard is a war banner used in battle, and as standard bearer, Tiberius would lead many marching men into battle. It was a great honor to be standard bearer (especially the aquilifer - the carrier of the golden eagle standard), and would grant a lot of authority over the rank and file of legionaries. As a standard bearer, Tiberius likely wore an animal hide over his armor, with the head of the animal on top of his helmet so that its teeth would be visible on his forehead.

Tiberius served beyond his 20 year conscription period, a feat that was fairly common in the second half of the first century to the point that some historians speculate universal enlistment extensions by 5 years. Thus, there is some hesitation on whether his "voluntarily serving beyond his time" is completely accurate.

The text mentions that Tiberius was responsible for bringing back the defeated Decabalus, king of Dacia during the Dacian Wars. At the siege of his kingdom, he retreated with his close followers as emperor Trajan sent cavalrymen to pursue. It was Tiberius who finally caught up with the monarch, but before he could retrieve him alive, Decebalus slit his own throat. Tiberius then retrieved the head and right arm of the fallen foe, which were presented to the emperor.

As Tiberius was honorably discharged after the Dacian and Parthian wars, it is unclear whether he would have attended the triumphs for those victories in Rome. In most cases, soldiers that would attend the triumph were usually those who neared the end of their service. However, once back in civilian life, like all soldiers he would have been greeted with upward social mobility - likely much more than average given his war decorations and the existence of his monument.

Lingering Questions

What were the duties of the treasurer of the cavalry and guard of the commander?

Works Cited
Dando-Collins, Stephen. Legions of Rome: the Definitive History of Every Imperial Roman Legion. London: Quercus, 2010. Print.

Phang, Sara Elise. Roman Military Service: Ideologies of Discipline in the Late Republic and Early Principate. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print.

Matyszak, Philip. Legionary: the Roman Soldier's (unofficial) Manual. London: Thames & Hudson, 2009. Print.

Webster, Graham. The Roman Imperial Army. London: A. and C. Black Limited, 1969. Print.

Watson, G.R. The Roman Soldier. New York: Cornell University Press, 1969. Print.

Wiki Links
Veterans' rights
Though Tiberius was born a Roman citizen and granted great honors, this document tells of the benefits his fellow veterans would have received at a bare minimum for their service, including granting of citizenship for the veteran and their family. The two documents together relate how veterans were valued in Roman society, probably due to the need for the emperor to appease the army in ensure loyalty.

Soldiers' Duties
This document provides an excellent example of a strength report that would have listed Tiberius before the non-duplicaria in his legion. It provides a more detailed look at the inside workings and documentation of the legion's current state, as well as details of its functioning (including the obtaining of supplies)

Soldiers' families
Though not directly related, this document speaks of what remains of the soldier's family if he dies in battle. Contrasted with the veteran's rights document listed earlier, it seems that the benefits of citizenship for the soldier's family is completely contingent on the soldier surviving battle and returning home alive after his years of service has expired. It's interesting to note that for a soldier like Tiberius, who voluntarily served beyond his commitment, would not legally have a wife during this time even if he married between his two periods of service. It's thus possible to assume that soldier's without families were more likely to voluntarily serve additional time.