Study Guide

Places: where is it? Why is it important?

PEOPLE SHOULD WRITE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PROVINCES THEY DID

1. (H)Adrianople (Battle of) - August 3, 378 AD fought between Eastern Roman Empire army under Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels in Thrace. Result was a decisive victory for the Goths, forcing the Eastern Roman's to respect their presence in their Empire. Roman army massacred, put Eastern Roman empire in a recruitment crisis. Gothic Cavalry defeated Roman cavalry on the flanks and helped surround the Roman troops. Result was to leave the large and hostile Goths inside Roman territory, who would later expedite the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Battle of Adrianople
2. Actium (Battle of) - September 31 - Decisive naval engagement in the war between Octavian and Marc Antony. It was fought near Actium Greece in the Ionian sea. With Octavian's victory here he was able to consolidate his power and control over the Republic and begin making the empire. Marc Antony's troops would desert him or were killed in this engagement largely diminishing his threat to Octavian. Unclear why Antony and Cleopatra fled the battle, leaving their forces to be destroyed. Battle of Actium
3. Alexandria - Capital of Roman Egypt (Aegyptus) The city was founded in 332 BCE by Alexander the Great and was noted as a centre of Hellenistic culture. Its library (destroyed in the early centuries CE) was the greatest in ancient times; a new library was opened in 2002. The city was captured by the Arabs in CE 642 and by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Alexandria
4. Bithynia et Pontus- Originally two separate provinces. King MIthridates VI, in 113BC, was king of the province Pontus. Around 88BC, Mithridates began to rapidly expand and conquered all of western Asia Minor. Western Asia Minor had been a Roman province but the inhabitants considered Mithridates a liberator. Mithridates furthered his social standing in his newly conquered territory by encouraging expressions of hatred towards the Romans within his new provinces. Sulla managed to reach an agreement with Mitridates at Dardanus in the fall of 85, but as soon as Nicomedes, the king of Bithynia, bequeethed his kingdom to the Romans upon his death in 75, the Romans continiued their fight with MIthridates. Pompey was finally able to defeat Mithridates in 66, and he took control of Pontus and Mithridates' regions. Soon after, the Romans reorganized Bithynia and Pontus into a single region.
A few hundred years later, in order to quell local difficulties, Emperor Trajan appointed Pliny the Younger, one of the documenters of the eruption of Vesuvius, as a curatore, a caretaker. These caretakers reported directly to the Emperor. The works of these caretakers seems to have been beneficial in the Roman provinces.

5. Britannia - conquered by Claudius in 43 CE, Hadrian's Wall - northern frontier of Empire, religious syncretism (good example of inclusiveness of Roman religion), some mining
6. Cannae (Battle of) - 216 BC near Roman city of Cannae (on South-East coast of Italian Peninsula on the Adriatic), battle between Carthaginian General Hannibal & Roman Consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus & Gaius Tarentius Varro during the second punic war. Hannibal defeated a much larger Roman force, poorly commanded by the opposing views and command styles of the Roman Consuls who alternated days of command with different strategies each day, by encircling them and crushing them. The battle was a major defeat for the Romans leaving them in utter disarray, Roman allies deserted her, and Rome could not stand up to Hannibal for several subsequent years.Battle of Cannae
7. Carthage-Carthage was a major trading city near Modern day Tunis. It was destroyed in the 3rd Punic War in 146 BC. At its height, it was Rome’s main rival for power and the two states, fought a series of wars, (Punic wars), beginning in 264. Carthage relied on sea power and trade largely, and had lots of mercenaries in its army. It Colonized or had influence in parts of Sicily, Sardinia, fought with Greeks in Sicily, which would be where the 1st Punic war began. [feel free to add more, these are my scattered notes]
8. Constantinople-Constantine made this the capitol in 330 AD. It emulated Rome in some ways, (had 7 hills, grain was given out to 80k people, like doles in Rome, had a circus, public spectacles) but also differed from it in others (lots of churches, Christian life was a defining feature of the city). The city attracted lots of people since there were jobs to be had building up the capital ad in other areas. It was also important in that it marked a shift away from Rome and the West.
9. Corinth-Corinth was one of the richest and most prominent city states in southern Greece. Following the second Macedonian war, Flaminius declared the freedom of a number of Greek cities; however, this implicitly included recognition of Rome as leading and dominant force in Greece. After 4th Macedonian War, Rome fights with group of Greek city states, Achaean League, which refused to give independence to some city states when Rome asked. There was a war and Corinth was completely razed and its citizens were sold into slavery in 146.
10. Dacia
11. Egypt
12. Ephesus-it was located on the western coast of modern day turkey. There was a somewhat well-known library at Ephesus and the Gospel of John may have been written there; it was generally important for Christian faith and there were lots of important Christian councils held there. It was also a very populous and large city and had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world. (Most of this was form Wikipedia. I couldn’t find much I the text book about Ephesus)
13. Gaul - Gaul Power Point - Modern France, Belgium, Netherlands, Northern Italy. Conquered by Caesar in the 50's BC. Largely adopted Roman Culture. Formerly held by Celt, Belgae, and Aquitanii. Had unique Metallurgy. German invasions wracked province of Gaul, eventually conquered by Franks under Clovis following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
14. Parthian empire
15. Pharsalus (Battle of) - 48 BC, Decisive battle in Caesar's Civil War. Fought in Greece between Caesar and Pompey (with the senate & the Optimates). Pompey's army significantly outnumbered Caesar but Caesar had veteran legions. Caesar defeated Pompey, marking the true end to resistance against Caesar, effectively marking Caesar as leader of Rome.
16.Pompeii-Pompeii was preserved thanks to volcanic eruption and provides evidence for lots of what we know about roman cities. Destroyed by Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. On southwestern coast of Italy, near Naples.
17. Rome
18. Rubicon River - Rubicon River - River in Northern Italy that marked the distinction between Roman Italy and Cisapline Gaul, Caesar's province. No Roman governor could cross it with troops, so when Caesar crossed it he marked his open rebellion and defiance of the Senate. Rubicon River
19. Sicily
20. Syracuse
21. Tiber river- The Tiber river was the most important ports in Rome; it was where all of Rome's wheat, olive oil, and wine where imported. In addition, the Romans built a vast sewage system that directed the waters of the Tiber straight into the city of Rome. Legend has it that the founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus, were found on its banks. In addition, during the Punic Wars of the 3rd century, the Tiber River was an important naval base for the Romans. Tiber River
22. Zama (Battle of) - October 202 BC. Marked the end of the Second Punic war with a decisive victory for the Roman Republic. Fought at Zama near Carthage. Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal. Carthaginian senate sued for peace after the battle. Terms of the peace were so punishing that Carthage could never challenge Roman primacy again. Battle of Zama


Key Words and Terms: What is it? When is it? Where is it?



23. Antikythera Mechanism- oldest known scientific computer. It was made between 150-100 BCE and it was used to calculate astronomical positions. It was found by archeologists in 1900-1901 in the Antikythera shipwreck. Such a complex mechanism was not seen until the 14th century in Europe. Antikythera Mechanism
24. Ara Pacis- "an alter to peace." Commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4th, 13BCE to celebrate the triumph of Emperor Augustus' return from Hispania and Gaul. The alter is adorned with carvings of the entire Julio-Caudian dynasty. The alter was intended to remind the public of the peace and fertility brought by the emperor and it was supposed to promote the idea of Pax Augusta, "Augustan peace." Ara Pacis
25. Augusti and Caesars-Diocletian’s idea. Two senior emperors, augsuti, two junior emperors, the Caesars. This was meant to provide a stable way to transition power form one man to anther as well as allow for a division of the massive task of ruling the empire. It didn’t really provide for smooth transition as there was infighting between men over whom should get power. Eventually, Constantine became sole emperor again, some 40ish years later.
26. Barbegal Water Mill - Roman water mill complex in southern France, "greatest known concentration of mechanical power in ancient world"
27. Circus Maximus
external image Circus_Maximus.jpg
Built over the course of Rome's history the site was used for a variety of purposes though over the years chariot racing became its main function. It was used for religious and public festivals and ceremonies and chariot and horse racing. It could seat upwards of 250,000 people.
Colonus-1. Tenant farmer or country dweller or 2. Member of a roman colonia, which was a colony founded generally to settle discharged veterans or poor civilians who wanted a new start. Each member of a colonia got a plot of land. The allotting of land for veterans could be the cause of a lot of turmoil. ex the times of Marius and Sulla.
2. Comitia centuriata - Roman Voting Assembly based on a military organization. 193 centuries, 18 Equites, 170 pedites,after 241, divided into 2 equal age groups and 5 classes based on property); 5 unarmed centuries, open to all citizens, Consul or Praetor would oversee elections after 201 BC, or before that a Dictator. If no Consul or Praetor, an interrex would oversee the elections. Once chief law-making body; rarely used after 218, except for declarations of war and confirming the power of the censors. Each century got one vote, centuries divided by age and wealth status. The centuries were heavily skewed towards the top so that very few wealthy individuals held most of the vote.
3. consuls – highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire
Roman republic – consuls were highest civil and military magistrates, serving as heads of government for the Republic. New consuls were elected every year. There were two consuls at a time that ruled by mutual consensus.
Empire – consuls were merely a figurative representative of Rome’s republican heritage, held little power/authority
4. Emperor cult - Cult to the living emperor and some of the famous predecessors. It signified that the Emperor's office was divine and constitutional. It granted divine status to the Emperor and some of his family members. It was seen as a unifying force in the Empire and was gauged as a sign of loyalty. Christian refusal to participate was seen as a sign of disloyalty to the empire and the emperor.
5.Equestrians-upper class Romans who were not a member of the patricians. They often ran large successful businesses, and made up groups such as the publicani. Cicero was a member of the equestrian class. Augustus favored the equestrians in political administration since they were less likely to try to seize power for themselves and start a civil war. Egypt was always overseen by members of the equestrian order.
6. Etruscans
7. Euergetism- I think this is the practice by which the elite and wealthy would out of a sense of duty or desire for popularity, donate money to the community. They would build up cities, or put on games, or pay for people to go to the baths, etc. This practice was important for the maintenance of towns in the Roman Empire. I think lecture mentioned that as the provincial elite became Romanized, they lost their individual connection to their cities and no longer gave as freely or as willingly.
8. Evocatio - A military ritual of calling out of a diety. It was done as a method for psychological warfare by the Romans. When besieging a city, they would call the local deity to forsake the city being besieged and come over to the Roman side, promising them a temple in Rome.
9. Freedmen/women

10. Gladiators
Not publicly sponsored until imperial era, privately sponsored beforehand. Not as bloody as generally thought, closer to modern day boxing, as owners invested a lot in gladiators and did not want to lose half of them during every fight. Still, it was a brutal sport and many died. Book suggests this may show how desensitized the Romans were to violence and death.
11. Goths-
Nomadic people to north of Rome. Allowed to migrate south of Danube, but too many came over leading to violence and the defeat of the Romans at the battle of Adrianople in 378. Some 30 years later, a visigothic force led by Alaric I seized Rome. They are indicative of the problem Rome had with the ‘barbarians’ to their North.
12. honestiores & humiliores -
"Moreover, by the second century A.D. Roman citizens were in practice divided into two groups. The honestiores ("more honorable") comprised senators, equestrians, veterans, town councillors, and other well-educated individuals (and their families); the humiliores ("more lowly") were the innumerable others, the great majority of the population. For the honestiores, conviction on a capital charge might bring exile or a fine; for others, the sentence was likely to be assignment to the mines (tantamount to death), hard labor on roads, or being thrown to the beasts in the amphitheatre. Even so, the distinction between honsetiores and humiliores is never explicitly defined in surviving legal texts, and it may have been at the discretion of the court."
13. Just war- This was the Roman idea that they should only fight just wars, where they were somehow provoke or compelled to fight; however, looking over Roman history, it seems that Rome often engaged in wars (of expansion) where they were not directly provoked.
14. Liturgies
15. Lugdunum Tablet - Tablet of the speech commemorating Gallic nobles ability to enter the Senatorial class and thus run for the senate. This was granted to them by emperor Claudius in 48 in a speech to the Senate, which is what was inscribed here. It speaks of how Sparta and Athens feel because they mistreated those they had conquered but Rome was great because since its founding it included its defeated enemies into its system and expanded those in power. It speaks of how the Gauls have adopted Roman manners & Culture. Reflects Gallic infusion of Roman ideas and nature of Roman Rule.
16. Manumission - it is when an owner declares his or her slave free.
17. Military diplomas- See picture below.
18. Plebeians & Patricians
19. Pozzolana concrete
20. Praetorian Guard - A military and political force in the Roman Empire. They were technically the bodyguards of the Emperors, but often were powerful in politics. They had their own castle outside of Rome. For the right amount of money or at will they would assassinate emperors. During crisis the Guard would pick their own emperors or shift their loyalty to the candidate they found appealing. They were an elite military force also. The emperors began to curb the Praetorian power in the later years of the Empire, with Constantine disbanding them definitively and destroying their fort in 312.
21. Roman Forum -city’s political and religious center. Valley in between hills. Held curia hostilia, where senate would eventually meet, and a number of other prominent temples.
22. tribune of the plebs
23. triumph – civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the military achievement of an army commander who had won great military successes, or orginially and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war
In Republic, only the Senate could grant a triumph
From the Principate onwards, the triumph reflected the Imperial order and pre-eminence of the Imperial family
Origins and development of this honor where obscure: Roman historians placed the first triumph in the mythical past
First – three mythical triumphs of Romulus (753BCE)
24. Triumvirate – a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals
The arrangement can be formal or informal
Originally triumviri were special commissions of three men appointed for specific administrative tasks apart from regular duties of Roman magistrates
In the late Republic, two three-man alliances are called triumvirates by modern scholars, though only for the second was the term triumviri used at the time to evoke constitutional precedents
First triumvirate – (59-53BC) Julius Caesar, Pompeius Magnus, and Marcus Crassus – arrangement had no legal status, purpose was to consolidate power over senatorial elite
Second triumvirate – (43-33BC) Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus – unlike first, second was an official, legally established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates
25. Vandals -
were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century, perhaps best known for their sack of Rome in 455. Although they were not notably more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, Renaissance and Early Modern writers who idealized Rome tended to blame the Vandals for its destruction. This led to the coinage of "vandalism", meaning senseless destruction, particularly the defacing of artworks that were completed with great effort.
26. Vestal Virgins




People: Who are they? When did they live/act? What did they do?


1. Agrippina – (36 BC–20AD) may refer to Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and first wife of the Emperor Tiberius. Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus, was married to Agrippina’s father Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, but Julia was not Agrippina’s blood mother. After Agippa’s death, Emperor Octavian ordered Tiberius (his step son by Livia Drusilla) to divorce Agrippina and marry his daughter Julia. In 11 BC, Tiberius divorced Agrippina, reportedly against his will since he loved Agrippina and disapproved of Julia. While Tiberius was known as one of Rome’s greatest generals, this may have been the start of the reason why he was ultimately known as tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."
2. Antoninus Pius - (86 – 161AD) also known as Antonius, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161AD.
Adopted by Emperor Hadrian 138AD
Made few changes to established customs and laws under Hadrian
Constructed the Antonine Wall – which was abandoned closely after construction for vague reasons
Unique among emperors – dealt with these crises without leaving Italy once during his reign
Man of the law
Pass measures to facilitate enfranchisement of slaves
In criminal law, he introduced the important notion that accused persons are not to be treated as guilty before trial
148AD – 900th anniversary of the foundation of Rome, celebrated by games. While the event increased his popularity, his spending forced him to debase the Roman currency – decreasing silver purity of denarius from 89% to 83.5%.
3. Bulla Felix – Bulla the lucky
Early third century (206-7 CE) during reign of Septimius Severus (Harry Potter anyone?)
Thrown to the lions in 206 CE after leading ~600 bandits to ravage the towns of Northern Italy for about two years
Demonstrates how lawless large parts of the empire can be, even close to Rome itself
4. Caracalla – (188 – 217 CE)
Emperor from 209 to 217 CE
Eldest son of Septimius Severus
Remembered as one of the most notorious emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized throughout the empire
Authorized Constitutio Antoniniana, which granted Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire – did this to increase taxation
Debased the Roman coinage to increase the pay of his legions
Commissioned a large public bath house (thermae) in Rome – the baths of Caracalla
5. Claudius (Emperor) – (10BC – 54CE)
Emperor from 41 to 54 CE
Born at Lugdunum in Gaul – first emperor born outside Italy
Had a limp and slight deafness due to a childhood sickness
Was ostracized by his family and excluded from public office until his consulship with his nephew Caligula in 37 CE
Infirmities most likely saved him from purges of Tiberius’ and Caligula’s reigns – he was not seen as a potential threat
His survival led to being declared emperor by Praetorian Guard after Caligula’s assassination
Known during his reign as an able and efficient administrator
Ambitious builder of roads, aqueducts, and canals across the empire
During his reign – empire conquered Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia, Judaea, and began conquest of Britian
Took interest in law and presided at public trails – issued up to twenty edicts a day
Seen as vulnerable throughout reign especially by nobility, had to eliminate many senators to maintain his position
Adopted son Nero succeeded him as emperor at his death in 54CE
6. Cleopatra – (69BC – 30BC) last Pharaoh of Egypt
Member of Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great’s death
Represented herself as the reincarnation of Egyptian goddess Isis
Ruled jointly with father, then brothers (whom she married as per Egyptian custom), but eventually became sole ruler
As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne
Elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name
After Caesar’s assassination in 44BC, she aligned with Mark Antony
With Antony she had twins Cleopatra Selene II, Alexander Helios, and another son Ptolemy Philadelphus
After losing Battle of Actium, Antony committed suicide and she followed suit (by asp bite on August 12, 30BC)
7. Constantine – (272 – 337CE)
Emperor from 306 – 337 CE
First Roman emperor to convert to Christianity
Issued Edict of Milan in 313 – proclaimed religious tolerance of all religions throughout the empire
Foremost general of his time – defeated emperors Maxentius and Licinius during civil wars, resettled parts of Dacia
Transformed ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into new imperial residence, Constantinople, which would be capital of Eastern Roman Empire
8. Crassus – (115BC-53BC)
Roman general and politician
Commanded left wing of Sulla’s army at Battle of Colline Gate
Suppressed slave revolt led by Spartacus
Provided political and financial support to Julius Caesar
Entered political alliance, First Triumvirate, with Pompey and Caesar
Considered the wealthiest man in Roman history – high point valued at 200,000,000 sestertii
Desired recognition for military victories, which led him to Syria where in was defeated and killed in Roman defeat at Carrhae
9. Diocletian – (244-311 CE)
Emperor from 284 to 305 CE
Born to a low status Illyrian family in Dalmatia
Rose through the military ranks to become cavalry commander to emperor Carus
After deaths of Carus and his son on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed Emperor
Title was also claimed by Carus’ other surviving son, but Diocletian defeated him in Battle of the Margus
Rise to power ended Crisis of the Third Century and gave rise to the tetrarchy
10. Elagabalus – (203-222CE)
Known as Heliogabalus, Roman Emperor from 218 to 222 CE
Member of Severan Dynasty
In 217, the emperor Caracalla was assissnated and replaced by his Praetorian prefect, Marcus Ophellius Macrinus.
Caracall’s maternal aunt, Julia Maesa, successfully instigated a revolt among the Third Legion to have her eldest grandson, Elagabalus, declared emperor in his place.
Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218 CE at Battle of Antioch
Elagabalus ascended thrown at age 14 – showed disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos
His reputed behavior infuriated the Praetorian Guard, Senate, and People
Assassinated at age 18 and replaced by cousin, Alexander Severus
11. Gaius Marius – (157-86BC)
Roman general and statesman
Elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career
Reformed Roman army – authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminated manipular military formations, reorganized structure of legions into separate cohorts, and instituted standard military uniform/weapons
Life and career were significant to Rome’s transformation from Republic to Empire
12. Hannibal Barca – (247-183 BC)
Carthaginian military commander and tactician
Lived during a period of tension in the Mediterranean when the Roman Republic established its supremacy
Second Punic War – marched an army, which included war elephants, over Alps and Pyrenees and won three dramatic victories in Northern Italy during first few years.
Occupied Italy for 15 years, but a Roman counter invasion of North Africa forced him to return to Carthage, where he was decisively defeated by Scipio Africanus at Battle of Zama
Often regarded as the greatest military tactician and strategist in European history
13. Isis – goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout Greco-Rome
Ideal mother and wife, matron of nature and magic – Goddess of motherhood, magic, and fertility
Friend of slaves, sinners, artisans, and downtrodden
Isi originally was an independent and popular deity established prior to 3100 BC at Sebennytos in Northern delta
At Philae, her worship persisted until the 6th century, long after the rise of Christianity
See Cleopatra – connection to reincarnation of Isis
14. Jesus (~7BCE to 36CE)
Jesus of Nazareth, Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity
Was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire
Few scholars have questioned existence of Jesus as actual historical figure
In this time period, although Roman Judaea was strategically positioned between Asian and Africa, it was not viewed as critically important province by the Romans
15. Julian the Apostate – (331-363CE)
Roman Emperor from 355 to 363 CE
A noted philosopher and Greek writer
Last emperor of the Constantine dynasty, he was made Caesar by Constantius II in 355 and took command of the western provinces
Campaigned successfully against Alamanni and Franks – crushing victory over Alamanni in 357 at Battle of Argentoratum
360 was acclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, sparking civil water between Julia and Constantius – Constantius died
Last non-Christian ruler of Roman Empire
Desired to bring empire back to its ancient Roman values to save it from dissolution
16. Julius Caesar – (100BC – 44BC)
Roman general and statesman
Played critical role in transformation of Roman Republic into Roman Empire
60 BC – entered into political alliance with Crassus and Pompey
Famous for conquest of Gaul, 55BC conducted first Roman invasion of Britian
Crassus died 53BC, Pompey sided with Optimates, senate orders Caesar to stand trial
49BC crossed the Rubicon, sparking civil war from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Roman world
Centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic
17. Justinian – (483-565 CE)
Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from 527 to 565
During his reign, he sought to revive the empire’s greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire
Last emperor to speak Latin as a first language and important figure of Late Antiquity
Re-established Roman control over western Mediterranean via military campaigns, increasing empire’s revenue by over a million solidi
Uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states
Reign marked blossoming Byzantine culture – Hagia Sophia
Outbreak of bubonic plague in early 540s marked end of an age of splendor and period of territorial decline
18. L. Cornelius Sulla – (138-78BC)
Dictator (82 or 81BC)
Roman general and statesman, rare distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as that of dictator
High point in struggle between optimates and populares
Only man in history to have attacked and occupied both Athens and Rome
Used armies to march on Rome twice, and on second he revived office of dictator, which had not been used since the Second Punic War
Enacted a series of reforms to the Roman constitution meant to restore the balance of power between the Senate and the Tribunes
Stunned the Roman world by resigning the dictatorship, restoring normal constitutional government, and after his second consulship, retiring to private life
19. Livia Dursilla – (58BCE – 29CE)
Formally adopted into Julian family in 14 CE, Julia Augusta
Roman empress as the third wide of the Emperor Augustus and his advisor
Mother of the Emperor Tiberius
Father and husband fought on side of Julius Caesar’s conspirators and then Marc Antony. Fled Rome. She returned when general amnesty was announced and was personally introduced to Octavian in 39BC. Legend said that Octavian fell immediately in love with her, despite the fact that he was still married to Scribonia (gave birth to only child of Octavian, daughter Julia the Elder).
Remained married for next 51 years, despite no children and a single miscarriage
Set pattern for noble Roman matrona
35 BC Octavian gave Livia the unprecedented honour of ruling her own finances and dedicated a public statue to her
20. Marcus Antonius (Marc Antony) – (83 BCE – 30 BCE)
Roman politician and general
Important supporter and loyal friend of Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator
After Caesar’s assassination, Antony formed official political alliance, 2nd triumvirate, with Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, which broke up in 33 BCE
Final War of the Roman Republic in 31 BCE against Antony and Octavian, Antony defeated at battle of Actium
He and his lover, Cleopatra, committed suicide shortly therafter
His career and defeat are significant in Rome’s transition from Republic to Empire
21. Marcus Aurelius – (121 – 180 CE)
Emperor from 161 to 180
Ruled with Lucius Versus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus’ death in 169
Last of the “Five Good Emperors” and is considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers
Defeated and revitalized Parthian Empire
Aurelius fought Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatian with success during the Marcomannic Wars
Suppressed revolt in East by Avidius Cassius while under threat of Germanic tribes
Wrote Meditations while on campaign
Philosopher-king ideal symbolized much of what was best about Roman civilization
Succeeded by son Commodus
22. Mithras – a Greek adaptation of a Persian God who took on a new identity in Rome. His religion was called the Mysteries of Mithras and was one of the mystery religions that sprang up in the Roman Empire. The mysteries were popular with the Roman military and was open only to men. The cult met in underground temples and had secret handshakes. Mithras killed a bull and is commonly seen doing so. He was believed to have been born from a rock, slayed the bull, then dined with Sol, god of the Sun.
23. Nero – (37-68CE)
Emperor from 54 to 68 CE
Last emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Adopted by great-uncle Claudius
Focused on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire
Ordered building of theaters and promoted athletic games
Successful war and peace with Parthian Empire, crushed revolt in Britian, annexed Bosporan kingdom, and First Roman-Jewish War commenced
64 CE – most of Rome destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome
68 CE – rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne
Committed Suicide on June 9, 68 CE upon facing assassination
24. Octavian (Augustus) – (63BCE-14CE)
Emperor from 27BCE – 14CE
Adopted posthumously by great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44BCE
Joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in military dictatorship known as Second Triumvirate
Lepidus driven into exile, Antony committed suicide following defeat in battle of Actium
After demise of Second Triumvirate, Octavian restored the outward façade of the Roman Republic, with governmental power vest in the Roman Senate, but in practice retained his autocratic power
Transition to Roman Empire
Reign initiated era of relative peace known as Pax Romana
Enlarge empire dramatically, reformed system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, and created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, much of city was rebuilt under Augustus
Succeeded by adopted son (step son) Tiberius
25. P. Claudius Pulcher -
was son of Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 212 BC) and brother of Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 185 BC). In 189 BC he was curule aedile, and in 188 BC praetor.[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Publius_Claudius_Pulcher_(consul_184_BC)#cite_note-0|]]] He was elected to the consulship through the devices of his brother in 184 BC,[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Publius_Claudius_Pulcher_(consul_184_BC)#cite_note-1|]]] and in 181 BC he was one of the three commissioners appointed for planting a colony at Graviscae, a city in the coast of Etruria between Cosa and Castrum Novum
26. Paul of Tarsus -
(c. AD 5 – c. AD 67),[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_of_Tarsus#cite_note-Harris.2C_p._411-1|]]] was one of the most influential early Christian missionaries, with his writings forming a considerable portion of the New Testament. His influence on Christian thinking has been of utmost significance[3[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_of_Tarsus#cite_note-ReferenceA-2|]]] due to his role as a prominent apostle of Christianity during the spreading of the Gospel through early Christian communities across the Roman Empire.
27. Pliny the Younger
(61 AD – ca. 112 AD), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him and they were both witnesses to the eruption of Vesuvius on 24 August 79 AD.
Pliny is known for his hundreds of surviving letters, which are an invaluable historical source for the period. Many are addressed to reigning emperors or to notables such as the historian, Tacitus. Pliny himself was a notable figure, serving as an imperial magistrate under Trajan (reigned AD 98–117)
28. Pompey (Pompeius Magnus) – (106 – 48BC)
Military and political leader of late Roman Republic
Established himself in ranks of Roman nobility via successful leaderships in military campaigns
Was awarded three triumphs – (remember he was the one who’s elephants got stuck and really wanted a triumph)
Part of the First Triumvirate – validated by marriage to Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar)
After deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with optimates
Pompey vs. Caesar led to civil war
Caesar defeated Pompey in Battle of Pharsalus
His career and defeat are significant in Rome’s transformation from Republic to Principate and Empire
29. Romulus and Remus - mythical founders of Rome. Two brothers that were supposedly raised by a she-wolf.
30. Romulus Augustulus -
was the last Western Roman Emperor, reigning from 31 October 475 until 4 September 476. His deposition by Odoacer traditionally marks the end of the Western Roman Empire, the fall of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Western Europe.
31. Scipio Africanus – (235-183BC)
General in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic
Consul of the Roman republic (205-202 BC)
Defeated Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen Africanus
Tactical abilities demonstrated in Battle of Ilipa
First Roman general to expand Roman terriotires outside Italy and isalnds around the Italian mainland
32. Shabuhr (or Shapur) I
Shapur I the Great was the second Sassanid King of the Second Persian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 - 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent (together with his father) prior to his father's death in 242 (more probably than 240).
One of the great achievements of Shapur's reign was the defeat of the Roman Emperor Valerian.
33. Theodora - wife of Justinian
Dancer for the blues
built a lot of nuneries, etc.
Strong incluence on Justinian
Convinced him not to flee capital during riots after chariot race disput, killed the rioters
34. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
Tiberius and Gaius, were Roman Plebian nobiles who both served as tribunes in 2nd century BC. They attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. For this legislation and their membership in the Populares party they have been considered the founding fathers of both socialism and populism.[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gracchi#cite_note-0|]]] After achieving some early success, both were assassinated for their efforts.
35. Trajan -
Roman Emperor from 98 to 117 AD
As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly — the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. His war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117, while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian.
36. Valerianus I - ruled during crisis of third century
260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260. He was taken captive by Persian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the only emperor to become so and causing wide range instability across the empire.
37. Vespasian
Roman Emperor from 69 AD to 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians, who rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51 AD, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43,[4[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vespasian#cite_note-3|]]] and subjugating Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66 AD.[5[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vespasian#cite_note-4|]]] While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After the emperors Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69 AD. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea declared Vespasian emperor on July 1.[6[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vespasian#cite_note-5|]]] In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian gained control of Egypt. On 20 December, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate.
Little information survives about the government during the ten years Vespasian was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects, such as the Colosseum. Upon his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus.
38. Zenobia -
3rd-century Syrian queen of the Palmyrene Empire who led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267. By 269, Zenobia had expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect, Tenagino Probus, who was beheaded after he led an attempt to recapture the territory. She ruled over Egypt until 274, when she was defeated and taken as a hostage to Rome by Emperor Aurelian.

Events: When did it happen? Where did it happen? Why did it happen? Who did it?




1.3rd cent. economic crisis – (235-284AD)
Period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Began with assassination of Emperor Alexander Severus at hands of his own troops, initiating a 50yr period in which 20 -25 claimants to the title fought
By 258-260, the Empire split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire, Palmyrene Empire, and the Italian centered Roman Empire in between them.
The crises ended with the ascension and reforms of Diocletian, although it was his predecessor Aurelian who reunited the empire
The crisis resulted in such profound changes in the Empire’s institutions, society, and economic life and, eventually, religion, that it is increasingly seen by most historians as the transition period between the historical periods of Classical antiquity and late antiquity.
Economic impact – years of hyperinflation caused by coinage devaluation
2.Antonine Plague 165-180
Plague of Galen, who described it, was an ancient pandemic, either of smallpox[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonine_Plague#cite_note-0|]]] or measles,[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonine_Plague#cite_note-1|]]] brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. The epidemic may have claimed the life of Roman emperor Lucius Verus, who died in 169 and was the co-regent of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, whose family name, Antoninus, was given to the epidemic. The disease broke out again nine years later, according to the Roman historian Dio Cassius, and caused up to 2,000 deaths a day in Rome, one quarter of those infected.[3[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonine_Plague#cite_note-2|]]] Total deaths have been estimated at five million.[4[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonine_Plague#cite_note-3|]]] The disease killed as much as one-third of the population in some areas and decimated the Roman army.[5[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonine_Plague#cite_note-4|]]]
3.assassination of Julius Caesar - Ides of March (15 March 44BC)
A group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic
However, result was a series of civil wars, which ultimately led to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar’s adopted heir Octavius
4. Edict of Caracalla - 212 AD, issued by Emperor Caracalla, also known as Constitutio Antoniniana, granting full rights and citizenship to all freedmen in the Roman Empire and all right of Roman women to freedwomen in the Roman Empire. This was done to increase the tax base of the Roman Empire. Another reason could have been to increase the number of men able to serve as legionaries, as only Roman Citizens could. However, since one of the most attractive features of the army before this was to gain citizenship, the army became less attractive to people who already had citizenship. This led to recruiting difficulties in the later empire.
5.Gracchan land reforms (attempted)
6.Augustan Age
7.Bar Kochba Revolt - late 60s AD Jewish revolt, brought on my Nero's demand that Jews worship Emperor cult and his taxes upon them
8.Barbarian invasions - helped bring down western Rome late after battle of Adrianople (378AD)
9.Battle of Milvian Bridge (312) - Battle between Roman Emperors Constantine and Mexentius. Battle takes its name from the Milvian Bridge, an important crossing point over the Tiber River. This battle could be the point of conversion for Constantine who had a vision of the Christian God, who promised victory if Constantine and his men decorated themselves with the cross. Maxentius and Constantine were competing to inherit Diocletian's portion of the Tetrarchy. Maxentius was favored by Rome, Constantine was favored by Eastern Roman provincial ruler Galerius. Constantine was victorious and he marched into Rome. This battle gave Constantine undisputed control of the Western portion of the Roman Empire.
10.Council of Nicaea - 325 AD in Nicaea, Bithynia in modern Turkey. All the bishops of the Christian church were called by Emperor Constantine to reach a consensus in the Church over beliefs and doctrine. Set relationship of Jesus to God, built the Nicaean creed, set the date of Easter, and set some cannon law. Its goal by Constantine was to create a unified church for political reasons to help unify the empire. Perhaps he wanted a replacement for the Imperial cult.
11.Edict of Milan - 313 AD signed by Constantine and Licinius barring the persecution of Christians in the Roman empire and returned to them their property. It was signed as a celebration of Constantine's sister to Licinius. It also restored to the Christians all the property that was confiscated from them. It also protected all religions. Constantine had Christian sympathies for much of his life and reign, likely from his mother who was a Christian. Constantine would eventually declare himself a Christian, the first emperor to do so.
12.Fall of Byzantine Empire (5/29/1453) – Fall of Constantinople, capture of the capital of Byzantine Emprie
Siege by Ottoman Empire, under command of Sultan Mehmed II, against Emperor Constantine XI. Lasted from April 6, 1453 until May 29, 1453 when the city was conquered.
Fall of Constantinople marked end of the Roman Empire, an empire which had lasted for over 2,200 years, and was a massive blow for Christendom.
Some mark the end of the Middle Ages by the fall of the city and empire.
13.Fall of Republic (31 BCE)
Roman Republic begane with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy in 508BC and lasted 482 years until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the imperial period
Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44BC, the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31BC by Octavian, and the Roman Senate’s grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian (Augustus) until the first settlement in 27 BC, as candidates for the defining pivotal event ending the Republic
14.Fall of Western Empire (476 CE)
The Western Roman Empire was the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 285; the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly referred to today as the Byzantine Empire.
The Western Empire existed intermittently in several periods between the 3rd and 5th centuries, after Diocletian's Tetrarchy and the reunifications associated with Constantine the Great and Julian the Apostate (324–363). Theodosius I (379–395) was the last Roman Emperor to rule over a unified Roman empire. After his death in 395, the Roman Empire was permanently divided. The Western Roman Empire officially ended with the abdication of Romulus Augustus under pressure from Odoacer on 4 September 476, and unofficially with the death of Julius Nepos in 480.
Despite a brief period of reconquest by its counterpart, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Western Roman Empire would not rise again. As the Western Roman Empire fell into decline, a new era began in Western European history: the Middle Ages. During this time, the Western Roman Empire was supposedly refounded as the Holy Roman Empire.
15.First Jewish War – (66-70CE) The Great Revolt
First of three major rebellions by the Jews of the Judaea Province against the Roman Empire
Cause: Greek and Jewish religious tensions grew with anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens
Ended when legions under Titus besieged and destroyed the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem, and defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds
Defeat of the Jewish revolt altered the Jewish diaspora, as many of the Jewish rebels were scattered or sold into slavery
16.Punic Wars
17.Social War – (91-88BC) Italian War, War of Allies
Resulted from Rome’s intransigence regarding the civil liberties of the Socii, Rome’s Italian allies
Subjects of the Roman Republic, these Italian provincials might be called to arms or subjected to extraordinary taxes, but they had no say in in the expendicture of taxes or in the use of armies.
War was, in part, caused by continued rebuttal of those that sought to extend Roman citizenship to the Socii and address injustices inherent in the Roman system
The Gracchi, Tiberius and Gauis, and Marcus Livius Drusus the Younger were all killed by the Optimate after trying to extend Roman citizenship to allies.
War began when Italian allies revolted in 91 BC
Sulla made famous during this war
Lex Julia proposed by L. Julius Caesar
offered Roman citizenship to all citizens of Italian municipia who had not raised arms against Rome in the Italian War (Social War).
18.Tetrarchy -
describes any system of government where power is divided among four individuals, but usually refers to the tetrarchy instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire. This Tetrarchy lasted until c.313, when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East.
Year of Four Emperors – (68CE) When the senate declared Nero an Enemy of the People, he fled Rome and committed suicide. The newly installed emperor Galba was murdered after just a few month by Otho a rival, triggering a civil war that came to be known as the Year of the Four Emperors. In 69CE, though previously uninvolved, the popular Vespasian was also hailed emperor by the legions under his command. He decided, upon gaining further widespread support, to return to Rome to claim the throne from the usurper Vitellius, leaving his son Titus to finish the war in Judea.







Big Ideas: How do these shape our understanding of the Romans?


1) Christianity
2) Elite replacement model
3) Legionary economy
4) Social mobility.
5) Pyramid model of Roman social hierarchy.
6) Emperor worship
7) Imperialism
8) Military success
9) Monotheism
10)Origins of Roman State: literary tradition, archaeological record
11)Polytheism
12)Roman citizenship
13)Roman values
14)Romanization
15)Cultural imperialism- Bread and circuses
16)Role of women
17)Great Man Theory
18)5 Horsemen of the Apocalypse - famine, plague, mass migrations, state failure, and climate change
19) Rome & America -
20)Slavery
21) Taxes and Trade model


Sources:
All texts and images from lecture (available on CW)
Slavery Power Point - Not all images included, I used my judgment on these, feel free to add more.
external image 800px-Claudian_table_IMG_1073-black.jpg
Lugdunum Tablet

Tablet commemorating Gallic nobles ability to enter the Senatorial class and thus run for the senate. This was granted to them by emperor Claudius in 48 in a speech to the Senate, which is what was inscribed here. It speaks of how Sparta and Athens feel because they mistreated those they had conquered but Rome was great because since its founding it included its defeated enemies into its system and expanded those in power. It speaks of how the Gauls have adopted Roman manners & Culture. Reflects Gallic infusion of Roman ideas and nature of Roman Rule.

external image Trajans_column_from_east_01.jpg

Column of Trajan

Located in Rome, Trajan's Forum, completed in 113 AD commemorates Emperor Trajan's victory over the Dacians in the Dacian Wars. Has many scenes of the campaigns along its sides.

external image caecilia_tomb4.jpg

Tomb of Caecilia Metella, wife of Crassus' Son, 30 BC.

EmperorsArmy Ppt -

external image 786px-Celsus_library_3.JPG
Library of Ephesus/Celsus

Library in Ephesus in modern Turkey. Built to honor Tiberius Julius Celsus, a wealthy and popular citizen of Ephesus. This shows that public libraries were not just built in Rome. Celsus was honored as both a Greek and a Roman Citizen on the building itself. Celsus paid for the library himself, setting aside money for its construction before his death. Library could hold 12,000 scrolls and was a mausoleum for Celsus. Building reflects Greek influence on Roman Architecture.

external image 400px-Arminius1.jpg
NOT AN ANCIENT STRUCTURE!

Herman Monument
Monument built by Prussians to commemorate the victory of Arminius, Chieftain of the Germans who defeated the Romans at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest in 4 AD. The result of the Roman Defeat at Teutoburg was to Check the Roman advance into Germany, freezing the borders at the Rhine river.

SEE THE POWER POINT FOR THE VARIOUS EMPEROR'S VILLAS AND PRIVATE HOUSES

Romans Lecture 2 powerpoint

external image wolf-nursing-founders-of-roman-empire.jpg

She wolf nursing Romulus and Remus. Romulus & Remus (Babies) were added later. Comes from the Rome foundation myth that a wolf nursed Romulus and Remus when they were young.

external image Veduta_di_Paestum_2010.jpg
Temple of Paestum, located on the Southwest coast of Italian Peninsula. Was a temple to Greek Gods, shows Greek colony and influence in early Italian history.

external image 235px-N03Brutus-u-Lucretia.jpg
Statue of Lucius Junius Brutus holding the body of Lucretia after she committed suicide. He swore an oath to gain her vengeance. The rape of Lucretia led to the Romans rising up against the Etruscan kings and founding the Republic. She killed herself after being raped by Sextus Tarquinius, son of the King of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus "The Proud".

Problems of the Third Century - (No major ones I found, feel free to put in pictures you might find important)

Romans Lecture 1

external image segovia-roman-aqueduct.jpg
Roman aqueduct at Spain, very well preserved. It still functions today. Shows Roman ingenuity and spread across the Mediterranean. Transports water 11 miles from a mountain to the city.

external image Kopf_des_Serapis.jpg
Serapis - Graeco-Egyptian god invented in the 3rd century BC to combine Greek and Egyptian religion by the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt. He was Greek in Appearance but had Egyptian trappings. Represents a fusion of cultures for political ends.

Romans Lecture 3

decemvirs.png
Decemviri declaring Verginia as a slave, after abducting her when she was on her way to school, a ruling that would have forced her to be Appius Claudius' (one of the Decembivi) slave. Verginia's father stabbed her to death rather then submit her to slavery under Appius. Romans, already angry with the Decemviri for refusing to relinquish their power, attacked the supporters of the Decemviri and re-established the Republic.

military_diploma.png
Roman military diploma granting citizenship to soldiers and sailors who served in the Roman Military. This one is for Antonius Maximus who refers to himself only by his Roman Name. Shows social mobility of soldiers, integration of people into Roman Culture, etc.

All handouts (on CW)
Tacitus, Agricola, esp. sections cited in lecture
Res Gestae
Shelton (by # of document): 145, 163, 168, 187, 218, 223, 254, 259, 262, 294, 322, 338, 447, 449, 450.

Tips on how to approach a primary source:

  • Can you identify it? What is it? When was it written?
  • What is the voice—who wrote it and why?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • What is the subject/message? What is it about?
  • What is the genre? What kind of text/object is it?
  • What does it tell us? What does it mean?
Augusti and Caesars-Diocletian’s idea. Two senior emperors, augsuti, two junior emperors, the Caesars. This was meant to provide a stable way to transition power form one man to anther as well as allow for a division of the massive task of ruling the empire. It didn’t really provide for smooth transition as there was infighting between men over whom should get power. Eventually, Constantine became sole emperor again, some 40ish years later.